Locomotive vs Wiper
Watching runners can be fun and entertaining. No doubt, there are happy runners and there are sad runners and there are desperate runners and there are runners with peculiar orientations.
But there are also many runners who waste enormous amounts of energy and strength in movements, which are preventing progress and worse, undo all the effort to get quicker from A to B. If you remember some of your physic classes from school, you might remember the notion of something like a vector which is placed in between totally horizontal and totally vertical. Some runners seem to run totally vertical and some run totally horizontal. In the end, it seems that they go only up and down, or the go not at all up and down. Both, nevertheless, cover some ground, but at the expense of a considerable waste of strength, energy and effort. I guess, going back to the physics class, we would want to construct a machine, which combines in the best possible way the lifting of the ground with the moving forward process, so that we get to a nice vector with the best possible use of our physical investments.
Something similarly wasteful can be observed when looking at arm and shoulder movements. Our class teacher might again help us to understand what might improve our forward movement. He might show us all sorts of movements which might undo our efforts to move forward or upward. Lets pick only one: Moving your arms from left to right and right to left, vigorously, like the wind screen wipers in a heavy downpour. This will push our vector which is supposed to go forward again and again to the left and to the right and robs it of a considerable amount of forward energy. What to do instead? Just think of the movements of the rods on a steam locomotive, transmitting the power from the engine to the wheels. They go as much horizontal as possible. Just try to run like a steam locomotive and push you arms like rods, horizontally, and predominantly pushing forward, while the return movement runs on borrowed power. Their is not gain without a loss, which your teacher might have showed you millions of times, but some losses are outmanoeuvred by gains. Parallel-Horizontal arm movements, with an active forward push, fits the bill and turns you into a happier runner.